Explore The Shocking Progress of Beat Plastic Pollution upcoming big impact 23-24 the World. The India Prime Minister has called on the G-20 nations to work constructively for an effective, international legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution.
Table of Contents
What is Plastic Pollution
Plastic is a synthetic organic polymer made from petroleum with properties ideally suited for a wide variety of applications, including packaging, building and construction, household, electronics, agriculture etc. Plastic pollution is caused by the accumulation of this plastic waste in the environment. It is non-biodegradable in nature and persists in the environment, for hundreds or even thousands of years.
The categorized by primary plastic wastes such as cigarette butts and bottle caps, or secondary plastic wastes that are formed by the degradation of the primary ones.
As per the UN, over 300 million tons of plastic are produced every year and India generates 46 million tones of plastic waste annually, of which 40% remains uncollected and 43% is used for packaging, most of which are of single-use plastic
SOURCES OF PLASTIC POLLUTION
The main sources of marine plastic are land based, from urban and storm runoff, sewer overflows, beach visitors, inadequate waste disposal and management, industrial activities, construction and illegal dumping.
Ocean-based plastic originates mainly from the fishing industry, nautical activities and aquaculture.
Under the influence of solar UV radiation, wind, currents and other natural factors, plastic fragments into small particles.
CURRENT STATE OF PLASTIC POLLUTION
As per the 2023 Plastic Overshoot Day Report released by Swiss-based research consultancy Earth Action, 28 -July – 2023, the Earth saw its first Plastic Overshoot Day.
In India Plastic Overshoot Day on 6- January-2023.
Overshoot Day is the day when the generation of plastic waste exceeds the capacity of waste management, leading to environmental pollution.
It is based on the country’s Mismanaged Waste Index that is mismanaged and total waste ratio.
India is among the 12 countries responsible for 52% of the world’s mismanaged plastic waste. According to the Central Pollution Control Board, India generates close to 27,800 tones of plastic a day and over 1850 tones a day of plastic waste remains uncollected.
According to a Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) study the plastic processing industry is estimated to grow to 23 million tones in a year by 2020 from 14.4 MT in 2015 and nearly half of this is single-use plastic.
India’s per capita plastic consumption of less than 12 kg, is nearly a tenth of the United States of America (111 kg).
Types of Plastic Waste
Microplastics are small plastic pieces of less than five millimeters in size.
Microplastic includes microbeads (solid plastic particles of less than one millimeter in their largest dimension) that are used in cosmetics and personal care products, industrial scrubbers which are used for aggressive blast cleaning, microfibers used in textiles and virgin resin pellets used in plastic manufacturing processes.
What is single use plastic
Single-use plastic is a disposable material that can be used only once before it is either thrown away or recycled, like plastic bags, water bottles, soda bottles, straws, plastic plates, cups, most food packaging and coffee stirrers are sources of single used of plastics.
India has announced its commitment to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022 at Confederation of Indian Industry’s Sustainability Summit in New Delhi.
Plastic Life-Cycle Report by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).
As per the report, the landscape of plastic waste pollution and management Global scenario.
The global production of plastic increased by 79 per cent within a decade and a half (between 2000 and 2015).
Total mass of plastics on our planet is now twice the mass of all living mammals. Roughly 80 per cent of all the plastics ever produced continues to remain in the environment.the plastic industry were a country, it would be the fifth largest greenhouse gas emitter on Earth.
In Indian role plastic
The Plastic whopping 18.45 million metric tone of plastic was consumed in India in the year 2018-19; 59 per cent of this went into packaging. Which are non-recyclable at a commercial scale, made up 35 per cent of all plastic waste, and 40 per cent of all branded plastic waste.
IMPACT OF PLASTIC POLLUTION
Plastic waste along shoreline has a negative impact on tourism revenue. the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are facing the issue because of the international dumping of plastic waste at the island.
Impact on Animals
Plastic wastes have profoundly affected animals in aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems.
Plastic ingestion upsets or fills up the digestive systems of the animals thus contributing to their death due to intestinal blockage or starvation.
Impact on Human Health
Impact on Human Health
The chemicals leached from the plastics contain compounds, like polybrominated diphenyl ether, bisphenol and phthalates, impact human health leading to various hormonal and genetic disorders.
Plastics chemicals on land, resulting in the destruction and decline in quality of the earth’s land surfaces in term of use, landscape and ability to support life forms.
Plastic burning releases poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere impacting general well-being and causing respiratory disorders in living beings.
plastics are dumped in landfills, the hazardous chemicals present in them seep underground when it rains. The leaching chemicals and toxic elements infiltrate into the aquifers and water table, indirectly affecting groundwater quality.
In 2014, United Nation report estimated the annual impact of plastic pollution on oceans at US$ 13 billion.
Interference with the Food Chain
A smaller animals are intoxicated by ingesting plastic, they are passed on to the larger animals disrupting the interrelated connections within the food chain
IN INDIA SHORTCOMINGS IN HANDLING PLASTIC POLLUTION
Insufficient data and reporting: as the products are scattered into diverse sectors. Use of Single-Use Plastics which has short lifespan and widespread use. Consumer’s behavior which are currently aligned with the usage of plastic disposables.
Lack of a suitable alternative which are either too costly or difficult to produce in mass.
Poor implementation of policies Like Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021.
The 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter.
The 1996 Protocol to the London Convention Protocol
The 1978 Protocol to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) considers plastic marine debris and its ability to transport harmful substances as one of the main emerging issues affecting the environment.
GloLitter Partnerships (GLP) It is a project launched by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and initial funding from the Government of Norway.
Clean Seas Campaign
The United Nations Environment Programme launched the Clean Seas Campaign in 2017 to reduce the use of unnecessary, avoidable and problematic plastics including single-use plastics and phase out intentionally added microplastics.
The Campaign contributes to the goals of the Global Partnership on Marine Litter and the New Plastics Economy Global Commitment. UNEA’s Resolution to “End Plastic Pollution”: 175 countries have endorsed the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA-5) resolution in Nairobi to End Plastic Pollution and forge an international legally binding agreement by 2024.
The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 clearly stipulate that urban local bodies (ULBs) should ban less than 50 micron thick plastic bags and not allow usage of recycled plastics for packing food, beverage or any other eatables. The Rules also require that local bodies should provide separate collection, storage and processing of plastic waste in their areas.
Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules, 2021
Prohibits the manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of single-use plastics.
The thickness of plastic carry bags increased from 50 to 75 microns from 30th September 2021 and to 120 microns with effect from 31st December 2022.
Extended Producer Responsibility guidelines made applicable to plastic producers
India is a signatory to MARPOL (International Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution).
Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules, 2022: To strengthen the circular economy of plastic packaging waste and development of recycling infrastructure for plastic packaging waste. It is the first of its kind in Asia. The Plastics Pact is an ambitious and collaborative initiative to bring stakeholders together to reduce, reuse and recycle plastics within the material’s value chain.
12 WAY reduce plastic recycling
1. Incentivize Recycling Offer incentives for plastic recycling and recovery.
2. Raise Awareness Educate the public about plastic pollution’s impact.
3. Enforce Regulations Strengthen enforcement of plastic pollution rules
4. Empower Pollution Control Enhance Pollution Control Board’s capabilities.
5. Circular Economy Implement circular economy practices for plastics.
6. Identify Hotspots Pinpoint plastic leakage areas for targeted action.
7. Promote Alternatives Replace plastics with recyclable or biodegradable materials.
8. Biodegradable Plastics Encourage faster biodegradation plastics.
9. Plastic-Eating Bacteria Harness plastic-digesting bacteria for waste reduction.
10. Recycling Innovation Develop technologies like plastic-based tiles.
11. Plastic-Free Workplaces Ban single-use plastics in workplaces.
12. Collaboration: Engage government, industry, NGOs, and volunteers.
Launched scheme Kashmir Village
The scheme Give Plastic, Take gold.
Sadiwara, a village Panchayat in south Kashmir has launched an initiative called ‘’give plastic and take gold’’ 4 April 2023.
Under the scheme if the person give plastic waste of 20 quintals, then the panchayat will offer him a gold coin. After the state of compaing the whole village was declared plastic free within 15 days.
G 20 summit Ending Plastic Pollution 23-24
We are determined to end plastic pollution. In this context, we welcome the resolution UNEP/EA.5/Res.14 which established an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) to develop an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution, including the marine environment, with the ambition of completing its work by the end of 2024. We will also build on the G20 Marine Litter Action Plan as elucidated in the Osaka Blue Ocean Vision.
Researches Sun-power reactor to convert plastic and CO2 into fuel
Recently month of Feb- 23.the university of Cambridge the UK. Have developed a reactor, using just the energy from sun and covert plastic waste with greenhouse gases into sustainable fuels and valuable product.
The reactor uses a light absorber based on perovskite promising alternative to silicon for nest generation solar cell.
By changing the catalyst the researchers test of the reactor under normal temperature and pressure conditions showed the reactor could efficiently convert polyethylene [PET] plastic bottles and CO2, syngas or format in addition to glycolic acid.
Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and plastics are two the biggest threats facing the natural world.
Their conversion into value added products, driven by solar energy is an important step in the transition to a more sustainable, circular economy.
plastic pollution Is the big issued all over the world , plastic pollution every country solved the problem with recyclable used plastic waste.